What is going on in the brain for animals during acoustic communication? To be honest, we know so little about the neural mechanisms of acoustic communication. One major goal of our research is to understand how neural activity, both field potentials and spikes, is related to the ongoing vocalizations that animals produce and listen to. We perform both in vitro and in vivo intracellular recordings to study the biochemical processes generating the neural activity; We record neural activity with implantable electrode arrays in freely behaving animals; We investigate the causal relationship between the neural activity and animal behavioral performance through reversible or real-time brain perturbation.